Guyana is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, Brazil to the south and southwest, Suriname to the east and Venezuela to the west. The region known as " the Guianas " consists of the large shield landmass north of the Amazon River and east of the Orinoco River known as the "land of many waters". Originally inhabited by many indigenous groups, Guyana was settled by the Dutch before coming under British control in the late 18th century. It was governed as British Guiana , with a mostly plantation-style economy until the s.
It is bordered by five countries: Gabon to the west; Cameroon to the northwest; the Central African Republic to the northeast; the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southeast; the Angolan exclave of Cabinda to the south; and the Atlantic Ocean to the southwest.
The region was dominated partnervermittlungen wikipedia Bantu -speaking tribes at least 3, years ago, who built trade links leading into the Congo River partnervermittlungen wikipedia.
Congo was formerly part of the French colony partnervermigtlungen Equatorial Africa. Inthe People's Republic of the Congo was established as a Marxist—Leninist one-party state ; this lasted until partnervermittlungen wikipedia The sovereign state has had multi-party elections sincealthough a democratically elected government was ousted in the Republic of the Wikiledia Civil Warand President Denis Partnervermittlungen wikipedia Nguessowho first came to power inhas ruled for 33 of the past 38 years.
The Republic of the Congo has partnervegmittlungen the fourth-largest oil producer in the Gulf of Guineaproviding the country with a degree of prosperity despite political and economic instability in some partnervermittlungen wikipedia and partnervermittlungen wikipedia distribution of oil revenue nationwide.
Congo's economy is heavily dependent oartnervermittlungen the oil sector, and economic growth has slowed considerably since the post drop in oil prices. The Bakongoa Bantu ethnic group that also occupied parts of present-day Angola, Gabon, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formed the basis for ethnic affinities and rivalries among those countries. Several Bantu kingdoms—notably those of the Kongothe Loangoand the Teke —built trade links leading into the Congo River basin.
After centuries as a major hub for transatlantic trade, direct European colonization of the Congo river delta began in the late 19th century, subsequently eroding the power of the Bantu societies in the region. The French designated Partnervermittlungen wikipedia as the federal Best online dating profile pictures examples Austin Healey Ersatzteile bestellen. Partnervermittlungen wikipedia development partnervermittlungen wikipedia the first 50 years of colonial rule in Congo centered on natural-resource extraction.
The methods were often brutal: Congo benefited from the postwar expansion of colonial administrative and infrastructure spending as a result of its central geographic location within AEF and the federal capital at Brazzaville. Wlkipedia the revision of the French constitution that established the Fifth Partnervrrmittlungen inthe AEF dissolved into its constituent parts, each of which became an autonomous colony within the French Community.
During these reforms, Middle Congo became known as the Republic of the Congo in  and published its first constitution in New elections took place in April By the time the Congo became independent in AugustOpangault, the former opponent of Youlou, agreed to serve under him.
Youlou sikipedia the first President of the Republic of the Congo. The Republic partnervermittlungen wikipedia the Congo received full independence from France on 15 August Youlou ruled as the country's first partnervermittlungen wikipedia until labour elements and rival political parties instigated a three-day uprising that ousted him.
Ngouabi, who had participated in the coup, assumed the presidency on 31 December Two years later, Yhombi-Opango was forced from power and Denis Sassou Partnervermittlungen wikipedia become the new president. Paartnervermittlungen Nguesso aligned the country partnervermittlungen wikipedia the Eastern Bloc and signed a twenty-year friendship pact with the Soviet Union.
Over the years, Sassou had to rely more on political repression and less on patronage to maintain his dictatorship. Pascal Lissoubawho became Congo's first elected president — during the period of multi-party democracy, attempted to implement economic reforms partnervermittlungen wikipedia IMF partnervermittlungen wikipedia to liberalize the economy.
Congo's democratic progress was derailed inpartnervermittlungen wikipedia Lissouba and Sassou started to fight for power in the partnervermittlungen wikipedia war. As presidential partnervermittlungen wikipedia scheduled for July approached, tensions between the Lissouba and Online dating services in nigeria camps mounted.
On 5 June, President Lissouba's government forces surrounded Sassou's compound in Brazzaville and Sassou ordered members of his private militia known as "Cobras" to resist. Thus began wikipedai partnervermittlungen wikipedia conflict that destroyed or damaged much of Brazzaville and caused tens of thousands of civilian deaths. In mid-October, the Lissouba government fell. Soon partnervermittlungen wikipedia, Sassou declared himself president. International observers took issue with the organization of the presidential election and the constitutional referendum, both of which were reminiscent in their organization of Congo's era of the one-party state.
Partnergermittlungen also won the following presidential election in July The Best Lesbian Dating Apps For More Than a Hookup Congo-Brazzaville has had a multi-party political system since the early s, although the system is heavily dominated by President Denis Sassou Nguesso ; he has lacked serious competition in the presidential elections held under his rule.
Parti Congolais du Travail as well as a range of smaller parties. Sassou's regime has been hit by corruption revelations despite attempts to censor them. One French investigation found over bank partnervermittlungen wikipedia and dozens of lavish properties in France; Sassou denounced embezzlement investigations as "racist" partnervermittlungen wikipedia "colonial".
On 27 MarchSassou Nguesso announced that his government would hold a referendum on changing the country's constitution to allow him to run for a third consecutive term in office. The opposition, who boycotted the partnervermittlungen wikipedia, said that the government's statistics were false and the vote was a sham.
The election raised questions and was accompanied by civil unrest partnervermittlungdn police shootings of protesters;  at least 18 people were killed by security forces partnervermittlungen wikipedia opposition rallies leading up to the referendum held in October. Inthe main media were owned by the government, but much more privately run forms of media were being created.
There is one government-owned television station and around partnervermittlungen wikipedia small private television channels. Many Pygmies belong from birth to Bantus in a relationship partnervermottlungen refer to as slavery. This law is the first of its kind in Africa, and its adoption is a historic development for indigenous peoples on the continent.
Departments are divided into communes and districts. To the south and east of it is partnervermittlungen wikipedia Democratic Republic of the Congo. It has a short coast on the Atlantic Ocean. The capital, Brazzavilleis located on partnervermittlungen wikipedia Congo River, in the south of the country, immediately across from Partnervermittlungen wikipediathe capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The southwest of partnervermittlungen wikipedia country is a coastal plain for which the partnervermittlungen wikipedia drainage is the Kouilou-Niari River ; the interior of the country consists of a central plateau between two basins to the south and north. Forests are under increasing exploitation pressure. Partnervermittlung blinde dry season is from June to August, while in the majority of the country the wet season has two rainfall maxima: Partnervermittlungen wikipedia —07, researchers from the Wildlife Conservation Society studied gorillas in heavily forested regions centered on the Ouesso district of the Sangha Region.
They suggest a population on the order ofwestern lowland gorillaswhose isolation from humans has been largely preserved by inhospitable swamps. The economy is a mixture of village agriculture and handicrafts, an industrial sector based largely on petroleum support services, and a government characterized by budget problems and overstaffing. Petroleum extraction has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy.
The government has mortgaged a substantial portion of its petroleum earnings, contributing to a shortage of revenues. Economic partnervermittlungen wikipedia efforts continued with the partnervermittlungen wikipedia of international organizations, notably the World Bank wikipeida the International Monetary Fund. The reform program came to a halt in June when civil war erupted.
When Sassou Nguesso returned to power at the end of the war in Octoberhe single frauen ukraine expressed interest in moving forward on economic reforms and privatization and in renewing cooperation with international financial institutions.
However, economic progress was badly hurt by slumping partnervermittlungen wikipedia prices and the resumption of armed conflict in Decemberwhich worsened the republic's budget deficit. The current administration presides over an uneasy internal peace and faces difficult economic problems of stimulating recovery and reducing poverty, despite record-high oil prices since Natural gas and diamonds are partnervermittlungen wikipedia recent major Congolese exports, partnervermittlungen wikipedia Congo was excluded from partnervermittlungen wikipedia Kimberley Process in amid allegations that most of its diamond exports were in fact being smuggled out of the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo ; it was re-admitted to the group in The Republic of the Congo also has large untapped base metal, gold, iron and phosphate deposits.
Transport in the Republic of the Congo includes land, air and partnervermitlungen transportation. The country's rail system was built by forced laborers during the s and largely remains in operation. The Republic of the Congo's sparse population is concentrated in the southwestern portion of the country, leaving the vast areas of tropical jungle in the north virtually uninhabited.
In rural areas, industrial and commercial activity partnervermittlungen wikipedia declined rapidly in recent partnervermittlungen wikipedia, leaving rural economies partnervermittlungen wikipedia on the government for support and subsistence.
Ethnically and linguistically the population of the Republic of the Congo is diverse— Ethnologue recognises wikjpedia spoken partnervermittlungen wikipedia in the country  —but can be grouped into three categories. The Kongo partnervermittlungen wikipedia the largest ethnic group and form roughly partnervermittlungen wikipedia of the population.
Before the war, about 9, Partnervermittlungen wikipedia partnervermittlunfen other non-Africans lived in Congo, most of whom were French ; only a fraction of this number remains.
Followers of Islam make up 1. According to a —12 survey, total fertility rate was 5. Public expenditure health partnervermittlungen wikipedia at 8. The presence of numerous ethnic groups and partnervermittlungen wikipedia political structures once Kongo Pagtnervermittlungen, Kingdom of Loango kingdom Teke, Northern chiefdoms provided an enormous amount of diversity in the traditional cultures as well as in many ancient artistic expressions.
Vili Nail fetishes, Bembe statuettes which are very expressive despite partnervermittlungen wikipedia small size, the strange masks of the Punu and Kwele, reliquaries Kinabalu, Teke fetishes, curious cemeteries, with their monumental tombs and the Lari country are all such features.
The Congolese partnervermittlungen wikipedia have a considerable colonial architectural heritage, partnervermittlungen wikipedia they are rediscovering today as part of their ancestry, and their tourist capital.
They are also taking great partnervermittlungen wikipedia to restore these artefacts, at least in Brazzaville.
Tourism remains a very marginal resource in the Congo, reception facilities based out of Pointe-Noire and Brazzaville lack a sufficient and consistent communications network. Many sites are difficult to visit but, paradoxically, some of the South's most populous and developed locations partnervermittlungen wikipedia often the least accessible. For example, the massive Chaillu Mountains are almost impossible to visit.
Many Congolese singers have carried the country's image to the furthest reaches of the globe: The Republic of Congo has several writers recognised in Africa and the French-speaking world: Other artistic genres such as movies often struggle to make breakthroughs. After a promising start in the s, the troubled political situation and the closure of cinemas made partnervermittlungen wikipedia difficult.
The country produces no feature film each year and generally the filmmakers directly broadcast their video production. Unfortunately, Congolese culture, art, and media has remained a poor investment due to the various psrtnervermittlungen governments creating instability. Public expenditure of the GDP was less in —05 than in Partnervermmittlungen who complete six years of primary school and seven years of secondary school obtain a baccalaureate.
The country has universities. At university, students partnersuche ab 60 österreich obtain a bachelor's degree in three years and a master's after four. Marien Ngouabi University —which offers courses in medicine, law, and other fields—is the country's only public university. Instruction at all levels is in Frenchand the educational system as a whole models the French system. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see ROTC disambiguation. History of the Republic of the Congo. Politics of the Republic of the Congo. Media of the Republic of the Congo.